Urban furniture in Iran from the past until now
Our city is our home is a slogan that has attracted special and serious attention of officials in recent years. In this regard, urban furniture, city furniture or urban furniture company is one of the most effective and important industries in civilized urban life. The dramatic growth of this industry in recent years has led to changes in the appearance of cities, parks, streets and other busy urban areas.
In the past, when cities were not so big, houses were mostly built as villas. There was more green space and the lack of vehicles made people in the community more comfortable in life. But with rapid population growth, rural migration to large cities, unruly vehicles, the construction of apartments and residential towers with small units, less and less green spaces, air pollution, noise pollution and thousands of other reasons caused cities Great to face new challenges and needs, and that was to provide furniture and equipment for living outside the community.
In the past, all houses were built as villas, cities were not so big, there was more green space, and the lack of vehicles made people more comfortable in society.
But with rapid population growth, rural migration to large cities, the proliferation of vehicles, the construction of apartments and residential towers with small units, less and less green spaces, air pollution, noise pollution and thousands of other reasons caused cities Great to face new challenges and needs, and that was to provide furniture and equipment for living outside the community.
Needs such as arranging street lighting, garbage collection and environmental health, play equipment for children, public transport stations, and تجهیزات all of which were summarized in a parent industry called urban furniture.
If we want to enumerate the benefits of urban furniture, we can mention the following:
Beautification of the environment
Avoid congestion in front of people
Improving the mental health of the community
Creating infrastructure and urban development
Fit visual communication
Increase public health
Reduce environmental pollution
Reduce noise pollution
Promote sports and create more mobility in the community
More communication between people in the community
Reduce fuel consumption
Reduce treatment costs
Increasing economic prosperity
Some friends may think that this industry is young in our country, but this is not the case. It is undeniable that developed countries have done more acceptable and advanced work in this field, but in terms of antiquity, our dear Iran has been one of the pioneers of this industry in the world.
In the study of ancient architecture, the existence of water features during the Achaemenid dynasty, tablets, stone statues of kings and… indicate the antiquity of this industry in our country.
With these interpretations, the beauty and modernization of urban furniture equipment in every city and urban lighting is considered a symbol of development and progress. In fact, the city can be considered as a living thing or a work of art whose components are formed based on aesthetics, human identity, culture and historical civilization of the people of the area.
The category of beauty is one of the most basic philosophical issues of human beings. The artistic images of the first humans on the walls of caves (animals and hunting tools, etc.) are a confirmation of this claim. In fact, art and aesthetics have been woven into the fabric of civilized societies for thousands of years by appealing to religious methods and rituals and have always been the source of peace and the origin of the evolution of morality and spirituality. The spread of the concept of beauty as a result of human progress and development is evident in all areas of human life; From preparing and choosing clothes and making housing and home appliances to novel and eye-catching works of architecture and urban planning, etc .; Naturally, the culture of art-friendliness and the emergence of countless artists in different societies has followed.
In human schools and human-centered philosophies, as well as in the divine and God-centered religions, beauty has a high status. The famous hadith of the great prophet Hazrat Khatam al-Anbiya (PBUH) who says: “God is beautiful and loves beauty” is the starting point of the philosophy of Iranian mysticism. According to the content of this precious hadith, every Muslim commits good deeds and abstains from ugly and filthy deeds; Moving in the right and beautiful path, gradually turns the committed person into a manifestation of the beauty of God and ultimately leads him to the absolute beauty, which is the meeting of God.
The ancient and vast land of Iran, with its deep and rich historical and civilizational background, is a melody of beauty in all its branches and sub-branches, resonating with the pleasant song of art and art-friendliness. With the advent of Islam and the merging of two great civilizations, an amazing Iranian-Islamic civilization came into being and brought great artistic achievements.
Among these achievements is a new, meaningful and full of diversity perspective of urban beautification that has put in front of experts and practitioners in the field of urban management. Urban furniture, which is a definite and vital subset of urban beautification, played a pivotal role in plans and programs and was presented in its various forms in the beautification process. Because this important thing will be able to be manifested in the contemporary life of every urban Iranian.
Today’s cities and metropolises are associated with the unpleasant traits of misplaced density, extreme consumerism, the rejection of spirituality, and the removal of aesthetic manifestations; He is thirsty for this kind of look and is waiting for the crystallization of this attitude.
First of all, we need to be familiar with the correct and accurate concept of disability so that we can discuss it accurately and completely in the category of urban furniture.
According to the definition provided by the World Health Organization, health is complete physical, mental and social health. Disability, disability and disability are synonymous with each other and are subject to the same conditions in every respect. For example, pregnant women or the elderly are not classified as disabled in the strict sense of the word, but in the field of urban management because they can not use urban facilities such as healthy people and in fact have a disability in this area, so they can not be exempt from this rule. To be. Like pregnant women, people who become partially ill during illness until the end of their recovery period are among the people with disabilities in the use of municipal equipment and services.
In a more precise definition: Disability does not always cause disability, but along with any kind of disability, we see weakness and disability. Therefore, disability can be the result of a lesion in the body and disability can be considered as one of its manifestations, while not every disabled person is necessarily disabled.
Abnormally short stature, which leads to shortening of the horizon, weakness in movement, slowness of reactions, high sensitivity to high or low temperature, weakness in vision, hearing, smell and reduced or no control. Intestinal and bladder activities are generally classified as citizenship disabilities.
Adaptation and improvement of the environment that leads to the full use of urban equipment and facilities for people with disabilities in urban furniture in different ways should be considered, including:
Transportation: bus, taxi and metro stations
Media: Information, billboards and traffic signs
Park and city lighting equipment such as: light tower, street lamp stand, park lights, etc.
Means of communication: mailbox, telephone booth, etc.
Resting equipment: park bench, stone platforms, city pots
Amenities: drinking water, public service stalls, etc.
Urban cleaning equipment: park waste tank, galvanized mechanized waste tank and polyethylene
Access path features: Guide for blind and partially sighted people, floors with visual signs
Sidewalks: Sidewalk table, sidewalk width and slope and sidewalk slope
Sewage and telecommunication valves and ..
Separators and guards
Landscaping: Stairs, handles and related equipment
Communication bridges that connect two paths separated by an element such as a waterway and ramps
Color and design of all types of equipment
Pedestrian bridge: Stairs, corridors, roofs, lighting
Urban stairs: width, footpath, edge, fence, equatorial sign strip and stair surface
Certainly one of the most influential factors in the mind of every citizen is urban furniture. Apart from historical, cultural and natural attractions, each city has unique charms of the elements and components of urban furniture; Which will remain in the minds of tourists to a large extent and will be one of the components of recognizing and remembering the tourism in that city.
Urban furniture affects its audience in various aspects such as: shape and form, fit and dimensions, color and mood. Therefore, it plays a role both in terms of aesthetics and helping to respond to higher needs, including secondary needs and human self-esteem.
Every person expects to find a special feeling in that space by being in a certain environment. Therefore, urban furniture can not be passive and without a role in creating a sense in passers-by and tourists and the perception that is obtained from the components of that particular environment. It is easy to conclude that urban furniture should have a positive and desirable effect on citizens emotionally and psychologically and evoke emotions. Among them will be a sense of identity, belonging and expansion of mind.
The tourism industry in Iran is experiencing poor conditions for various reasons, while with the prosperity of this industry not only leads to more contact and cultural exchange of people with other nations, but also is very important in terms of economy and job creation. The unique land of Iran, with its strong historical backing, rich culture, high religious and national values and many other amazing potentials, can definitely be a priority for tourists around the world. In this regard, the beauty of the city and urban furniture plays a decisive and important role.
The furniture of any place or area can have a special attraction for a specific audience; But in the face of disproportion or the presence of an unexpected phenomenon, it fades and remains unaffected. For example, the suitability of a space to install a beautiful park bench will have a special appearance and meaning and a special function, so that when a park bench is installed near a building or a tourist attraction, the tourist will first reduce the speed, then Invitation to rest and eventually forced and required to pay attention to the desired area.
Regular repetition of urban furniture in an area, such as the placement of trees in a row with the base light of consecutive lights, encourages citizens and tourists to walk more and encourage double enjoyment of space. Consider that area with a variety of park benches next to them in proportion to the number, shape and color of the park waste bin; A place for children to play with modern equipment such as: polyethylene play equipment in various forms, bodybuilding equipment, etc .; To be decorated, there is no doubt that in this case, urban furniture has been successful in instilling a sense of well-being, peace and security in its audience.
Until the middle of the eighteenth century, no special attention was paid to urban furniture; The urban living environment was limited and provided a limited range of social connections. From 1970 onwards, new perspectives, ideas and theories on how to use urban spaces created a great change in urban furniture. After the decline of the feudal system in Iran, new economic factors and conditions centered on industry and with the establishment of factories, banks, railways and communication routes, telegraph lines, office buildings, ministries, hotels, cinemas, schools Barracks changed and eventually affected cities and urban facilities.
Following these developments, the installation of urban furniture sculptures began based on the daily needs of the city, and cities found a new structure. The need for the use of livable street areas and the experience of the city in creating public space and attention to the design of urban spaces became wider every day. On the other hand, social life and daily activities that took place outside the home, covered large parts of the city, and on the other hand, the various expectations and tastes of citizens to use these spaces increased moment by moment.
Today’s human civilization has become more and more urban and the growth of urbanization has had dire consequences on the body and soul of cities. The dimensions of settlements are becoming more complex day by day and the indigenous problems of cities are becoming more apparent. Therefore, urban society, especially in modern and modern forms, is constantly and extensively exposed to various types of hazards.
One of these dangers is the issue of the safety of urban furniture products, both physically and mentally. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the development of standards and regulations related to urban furniture, most of the aesthetic aspects of which are considered and less attention is paid to their safety factor and quality.
Along with the increasing growth of buildings, residential and office complexes, shopping centers, etc., paying attention to the beauty of urban spaces also becomes more important and subject to its own studies and changes. Meanwhile, urban furniture, as one of the most important components of urban beautification, finds a more central and colorful role. Therefore, the components of urban furniture, along with other elements and indicators, are effective and important in identifying and making the city meaningful as a safe haven and increasingly bedrock in citizens’ interactions.
The city as a tool in the distribution and supply of resources, profits, exploitation of industries, utilization of government services, etc. can appear apart from the category of social development in economic and political development; But to meet these expectations, how can urban furniture be a catalyst and even in times of action and reaction?
A city as a dynamic and vibrant place, which of course borrows its life and dynamism from a growing human being, can be both safe and quiet and insecure and devoid of charm, if we accept social, economic and political development conditional on charm and safety. The environment is urban, then creating the visual beauty of urban landscapes will be at the top of the list of priorities of those involved in urban management; In the words of Jean Bron: (Before studying human societies, it is necessary to pay attention to man-made works on earth) These works can be all accessories, equipment and tools of furniture in the city. Because the form, composition, arrangement and even the materials used in them reflect the culture of that society, evoke ethnicity and religion, the manifestation of psychological issues and ultimately the crystallization of identity (the ability to distinguish one environment from another in all respects ) It is a geographical area. All of these are considered to be the backbone of the social, economic and political development of that society.
It would be useless to design and execute urban furniture, which is divided into four general headings: street furniture, park furniture, traffic furniture, and advertising or informational elements and structures, in such a way that, in addition to instilling and creating a sense of calm, well-being. , Security and in harmony with other elements, with the meaning of the city and the ideals of citizenship, etc. with the help of economic infrastructure (attracting tourists, improving the quality and speed of business transactions, facilitating logistics) social and political society.